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Antioxidants

CHOLINE (CHOLINE BITARTRATE) IMPROVES BLOOD FLOW AND NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION 
 
Santos T, Mesquita R, Martins E Silva J, Saldanha C. (2003). Effects of choline on hemorheological properties and NO metabolism of human erythrocytes. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 29(1):41-51.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine the effects of choline on red blood cell membrane properties and NO metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aliquots of venous blood from eleven healthy subjects were incubated in vitro with choline concentrations 10(-10) to 10(-3) M. The following parameters were determined: erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and membrane lipid fluidity, plasma K+, Na+, Ca2+, total blood haemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations. Additionally, plasma and intra-erythrocyte nitrites concentrations were measured.

RESULTS: Choline increases erythrocyte deformability at lower shear stresses, decreases erythrocyte aggregation, increases membrane lipid fluidity, and decreases of Na+ plasma concentrations. We also find an increase of nitrites concentration both in the plasma and in the intra-erythrocyte compartment.

CONCLUSION: Choline induces changes on erythrocyte membrane properties, Na+ plasma concentration, and NO metabolites concentrations.

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